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 (216) 350-3111
Licensed to Practice Veterinary Medicine & Surgery in Ohio

Caring for Your Animals


Caring for Your Animals

At All Animal Clinic, we know that your  pet is a member of your family. If your pet is not feeling well, request an appointment at our clinic in Cleveland, Ohio. Our compassionate veterinarian will diagnose and treat any ailments your pet might have.


Caring For Your Dog

Annual Physical Exam

An annual physical exam by your veterinarian is the most important preventive measure for your trusted companion. Although it is important to get your pet its shots, it is equally, or more, important to have your pet examined by your veterinarian every year, as well as prior to receiving its shots. A detailed physical exam alerts you to conditions before they become problems and assures that your pet is healthy enough to respond properly to the vaccinations.

During your office call, please question the veterinarian on concerns you may have regarding your pet's behavior, weight, diet, aging changes, or other related issues. Pets will hide their illnesses, so physical exams are important!

Dog Vaccinations

Fortunately for your dog, vaccinations are available to prevent many diseases. Vaccinating your dog is the best and most affordable way to prevent disease. Continued protection can be assured by yearly booster vaccinations.

DHLPP

DHLPP is a five-in-one vaccine that protects against the following diseases: canine distemper, hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, and parvovirus. This vaccine is required for all hospitalized, boarded, or groomed dogs.

Puppies between the ages of 6 and 18 weeks need a series of DHLPP boosters every three weeks. During this time, your puppy's immune system is still developing and is more susceptible to diseases than an adult dog is. Once the puppy is finished with this series of boosters, annual boosters are given.

Adult dogs should receive a yearly DHLPP vaccination. An adult dog that has never been vaccinated should receive an initial series of two vaccines 3 to 4 weeks apart.

Rabies

Vaccinations are required by law for all dogs over four months of age to prevent both humans and pets from infection with this deadly disease. In our country, rabies occurs most often in wildlife, especially in raccoons, skunks, foxes, and bats. Rabies is spread by saliva of infected animals.

Puppies should receive their first rabies vaccine at 3 to 4 months of age. This vaccine is protective for one year. Adult dogs should receive a rabies vaccine every three years.

Puppy With Toy

Dog Getting Checked

Bordetella

Bordetella is a vaccination to help prevent "kennel cough," a respiratory infection. This is often required when boarding your pet or enrolling in an obedience class. It is also strongly recommended for dogs with a history of chronic respiratory disease or heart problems.

This stubborn respiratory infection may cause dogs to cough for weeks or months. The vaccine is most effective when given more than 48 hours before boarding or training your dog. Annual boosters are necessary.

Intestinal Parasites

Intestinal parasites, such as roundworms, tapeworms, and hookworms, cause sickness and problems with growth and digestion. Most intestinal worms cannot be detected without a microscopic examination of a fecal specimen. We recommend semi-annual stool examinations for early detection and treatment of intestinal parasites.

Fleas

Fleas often go unnoticed and cause discomfort, chewing, skin disease, and even anemia. If swallowed, fleas can transmit tapeworms. A flea program is required to prevent an infestation. The pet's environment must also be treated with a premise spray or borate powder. Do not waste your money on any over-the-counter flea products; most do not work, and some can even be harmful to your pet. Consult with your veterinarian before problems arise.

Frontline and NexGard are also available for flea control. These products are applied as a small amount of liquid on the shoulder once a month.

Heartworm

Heartworm is a serious parasite that infects dogs' hearts and lungs. The parasite is common and transmitted by mosquitoes.

Dogs often have the disease for a long time before symptoms become obvious and eventually cause death. Symptoms include coughing, weakness, and weight loss.

Young puppies can be started on a heartworm preventive right away. However, after six months most dogs require a blood test before starting on a monthly heartworm preventive. Preventives are only available through veterinarians and are most effective when given year-round. An annual blood test is strongly recommended.


Caring For Your Cat

Annual Physical Exam

First and foremost an annual physical exam by your veterinarian is the most important preventive measure for your trusted companion. Although it is important to get you pet it's "shots", it is equally, or more important to have your pet examined by your veterinarian every year, and prior to receiving it's shots. A thorough physical exam will alert you to conditions before they become problems, and assure you that your pet is healthy enough to respond properly to the vaccinations. During your office call, please question the veterinarian on concerns you may have regarding your pet's behavior, weight, diet, aging changes, or other related issues. Pets will hide their illnesses, so physical exams are important!

TRANSPORTING YOUR CAT TO THE VET

A plastic or cardboard cat carrier or crate is a good investment for trips outside the home. It will provide your cat with a safe private place and offer security from large dogs. If used routinely at home, it will help calm the cat when taken from the home for any reason.

Many serious infectious diseases of cats can be controlled by vaccination. With over 20 million pet cats in the U.S., your cat is quite likely to come in contact with an infectious disease at one time or another. Even indoor cats can be exposed to viral diseases carried in the air, in dust, or on clothing. Vaccination is inexpensive protection against costly treatment and the premature death of your cat! Continued protection can be assured by yearly booster vaccinations.

FVRCPC

FVRCPC is a 4 in 1 vaccine that protects against the following diseases:

FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA

Is also known as cat distemper and is a highly contagious and often fatal disease in young cats. it is easily transmitted from cat to cat. Signs include depression, loss of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea.

FELINE RESPIRATORY DISEASES

Include several different infectious agents. They are all highly contagious and are widespread. Upper respiratory infections are easily spread from cat to cat by sneezing, etc. Even a stray cat that seems to be outwardly healthy, may be a carrier of the disease and can infect your pet, even through a screen window. Signs of these diseases include: sneezing, fever, nasal discharges, runny nose, coughing, conjunctivitis (eyelid infections), mouth ulcers, and general depression.. These diseases include rhinotrachetis, calicivirus, and chlamydia. Kittens between the ages of 6 and 14 weeks should receive this vaccine every 3 weeks. A SERIES of vaccinations is necessary to build the antibody protection needed to help your kitten develop a high degree of immunity against these diseases. Adult cats should receive a yearly FVRCPC vaccination. Any adult cat which has never been vaccinated should receive an initial series of 2 vaccines, 3-4 weeks apart.

Dental Care

Is one of the most neglected pet health needs. Kittens can become accustomed to proper dental care by periodic brushing with a pet toothpaste. Peridontal disease is very common in older dogs and causes bad breath, and often serious infections. A dental exam can determine whether your pet needs preventive dental care such as scaling, polishing, and antibiotics.

Intestinal Parasites

Intestinal parasites, such as roundworms, tapeworms, and hookworms, cause sickness and problems with growth and digestion. Most intestinal worms cannot be detected without a microscopic examination of a fecal specimen. We recommend semi-annual stool examinations for early detection and treatment of intestinal parasites.

Fleas

Fleas often go unnoticed and cause discomfort, chewing, skin disease, and even anemia. If swallowed, fleas can transmit tapeworms. A flea program is required to prevent an infestation. The pet's environment must also be treated with a premise spray or borate powder. Do not waste your money on any over-the-counter flea products; most do not work, and some can even be harmful to your pet. Consult with your veterinarian before problems arise.

Frontline and NexGard are also available for flea control. These products are applied as a small a

mount of liquid on the shoulder once a month.


CatbGetting Checked

FELINE LEUKEMIA

Is now considered to be the LEADING cause of death in cats. It is a cancer-causing virus that often suppresses the ability to fight other infections. Kittens can be born with the virus.

Cats can have the leukemia virus for years before showing signs of the disease. Feline leukemia is HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS from cat to cat and is spread by licking, sneezing, fighting, sharing food bowls, or sharing litter pans. THERE IS NO SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT ONCE SIGNS DEVELOP. Due to the seriousness of this disease, we HIGHLY RECOMMEND THAT ALL CATS be tested and, if negative, vaccinated. Cats and kittens over 9 weeks of age receive an initial series of 2 vaccines 3-4 weeks apart. After this, a booster is given yearly. 

FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS

(FIP) is a contagious and fatal virus shed in the saliva, urine and feces of infected cats. It is the number 2 infectious killer of cats in the U.S. Signs may include loss of weight, labored breathing, enlarged abdomen, and generalized illness. Cats at risk are outdoor cats and those that live in multiple cat households. THERE IS NO SUCCESSFUL CURE ONCE SIGNS APPEAR.

RABIES

Is a fatal viral infection of the nervous system that attacks all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Cats have outnumbered dogs in reported cases since 1981. Rabies is a public health hazard and personal risk to you. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Even indoor cats may be infected through contact with a carrier animal in a basement, garage, or attic. THERE IS NO CURE. Vaccination is very important for your safety, as well as the safety of your pet, and is required by law for all cats over 4 months of age. Kittens should receive their first rabies vaccine at 3-4 months of age. This vaccine is protective for one year. Adult cats receive a rabies vaccine every 3 years.

FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

(FIV) has been labeled as the cat "AIDS virus" because of its similarities to human AIDS virus. In cats the virus is spread through bite wounds or urine. It is not transmissible to humans. Like AIDS, it depresses a cats immune system making it susceptible to many secondary infections. Unfortunately their is no vaccine for this disease. However, there is a reliable blood test that can be done alone or in conjunction with the feline leukemia test.


Spay/Neuter

Spaying or neutering is one of the best preventive care measures you can do for your pet. The surgery decreases the likelihood of many cancers and infections that can kill your pet. This surgery can decrease or eliminate many unwanted behaviors, such as urine marking, wandering, aggression, and hyperactivity.

We strongly discourage breeding your pet, as the animal overpopulation problem is too large to justify bringing more into the world. Although surgery can be done at any age, spaying or neutering is best done between 3 and 6 months of age.

Dental Care

Dental care is one of the most neglected pet health care needs. Puppies can become accustomed to proper dental care by periodic brushing with pet toothpaste.

Periodontal disease is very common in older dogs, causing bad breath and often-serious infections. A dental exam can determine whether your pet needs preventive dental care, such as scaling, polishing, and antibiotics.

Grooming

Grooming your pet is a responsibility of pet ownership. Bathing and brushing reduces itching and skin infections. Routine clips may help with parasite control and make your pet more comfortable. Ear cleaning is also recommended every 2 to 4 weeks for routine care, and more often for ear infections. Our hospital staff can show you how to clean dogs' ears properly and what products are safe to use for pet grooming.

Nutrition

When you feed your puppies, give them only good-quality puppy food. Puppies should be fed 3 to 4 times a day, and they should be given as much as they can eat within 15 minutes. Do not leave the food out all the time. It may be fed dry or moistened with hot water to bring out the flavor.

Cats
We recommend dry food only, fed twice daily to maintain your cats proper weight. Lite food (reduced calories ) is often necessary as cats mature. A good quality diet can usually prevent bladder problems. We recommend Science Diet or Iams pet foods.


Caring For Your Bird

Annual Physical Exam

Pet birds come in a variety of shapes sizes and colors. They can entertain you with their singing, talking and playful antics. Your veterinarian has a special interest in making sure your pet bird remain healthy and lives out it's natural life span.  Veterinarian's belonging to the Association of Avian Veterinarians are eager to assist you in selecting and caring for your new bird. Further information regarding your particular species can be found in books and handouts from your veterinarian, pet stores, and local bird clubs.

When picking a pet bird, match your life-style, preferences, and cost considerations with the right species of bird. Because impulse buying can lead to problems, choose a bird that is right for your situation.

Important considerations include:

  • Space requirements
  • Amount of care required
  • Life span
  • Cost
  • Whether or not it was hand fed
  • Noisiness
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Your veterinarian can assist you in this important selection.

Fortunately, most captive bred birds are now hand-fed. This practice results in much tamer and better adjusted pets. Because most younger birds are easier to tame and train, it is best to get a bird which is hand fed and only 2-3 months old.

Except with budgies and some parrots, determining the sex of your pet bird based on physical characteristics is often difficult and unreliable. For most pet bird owners the sex of their bird is not important. However, if you are interested in your bird's sex, a veterinarian can perform an endoscopic procedure or a blood test to determine whether if it is male or female.

When bringing a new bird home, isolation and quarantine for the first six weeks is advised. This practice protects other pet birds on the premises from any new diseases. HEALTH

Because birds tend to have very subtle symptoms of disease, it is very important they receive regular health examinations. For new birds, this exam is very valuable to protect your investment and prevent possible disease conditions. During this exam, your avian veterinarian can educate you about proper bird care. In addition, normal results in the new patient provide valuable references for subsequent examinations.

Your avian veterinarian is interested in the background of your bird- its age, sex, origin, length of time in the household, diet, caging, and contact with other birds. From an initial observation and examination, an experienced avian veterinarian will be able to note abnormalities in the feathers, skin, beak, eyes, ears, cere, nares, oral cavity, bones, muscles, abdomen, and vent. Checking your birds weight, will give valuable information about your bird's health.

Your veterinarian may suggest some diagnostic techniques to assist in evaluating your bird's health. A fecal sample may be examined microscopically to determine the presence of internal parasites.

Observation of your pet birds droppings is one simple method of monitoring your birds health. Because changes in diet and stress will effect their appearance, you must evaluate several droppings under normal circumstances before becoming alarmed. During their visit to the veterinarian, most birds will produce abnormally loose droppings due to stress. Because of this, leave the days droppings on the paper so your veterinarian can see the droppings produced at home. Normal droppings have three components: urine- which is normally a clear liquid; urates- which are creamy white; and feces- which very from dark green to brown in color. Sick birds may have decreases in the total number of droppings, a green or yellow color, or increased liquid such as diarrhea.

Your avian veterinarian may recommend a culture or gram stain of the droppings. It is important to detect abnormal bacteria or yeast infecting your pet bird, before your bird shows signs of sickness. Laboratory samples may also be taken from the throat, vent and esophagus to examine your bird health. Medications, such as antibiotics, will be prescribed if your veterinarian suspects an infection.

Screening tests are available to detect psittacosis or "parrot fever". This deadly (to birds, very rarely in humans) contagious disease, may be transmitted to other birds and even humans. If your bird came from an aviary or pet shop, it may carry this disease to other birds in your home. If detected, treatment for psittacosis is available.

Two serious contagious viral diseases called Pssitaccine beak and feather disease, and polyoma virus can be tested for in birds susceptible to these diseases. Psittacine beak and feather disease causes chronic deterioration of the feathers, beak, and health of a bird that has it. Polyoma virus is often carried without symptoms, however disease may follow a period of stress or cause rapid death in the chicks of breeders. Testing for these viruses during the health exam helps prevent these non treatable diseases from entering your flock.

Routine blood testing can give valuable information on the possibility of many other diseases not evident with an examination. Because birds mask illness, sometimes organ dysfunction can only be determined with the aid of blood testing.

X-rays assess the internal conditions of your pet bird. Your pet birds extensive respiratory system including the lungs and air sacs can be evaluated with x-rays to uncover often serious respiratory diseases or masses.

Because owners are often unaware of early symptoms of disease in birds, semi annual check-ups are important for early detection and management of potential problems. A sharp eye on your bird's condition and behavior can be lifesaving. You may be able to spot some illnesses and disorders before they become serious. Keep in mind though, that your bird can be tricky when sick. A natural defense mechanism enables the sick bird to "perk up" when necessary to avoid predators. If you don't spend a lot of time with the bird, or are unable to observe small abnormalities, you might miss the early signs of disease. Watch closely for any of the following signs of illness in your bird:

  • Change in character or number of droppings
  • Change in food or water consumption
  • Change in appearance or posture (Ruffled feathers, eyes closed,
  • droopy stance.)
  • Discharge from the eyes or nasal area
  • Noticeable breathing at rest or heavy breathing after exercise
  • Change in the voice
  • Feathers which are dull or puffed
  • An overgrown malformed beak
  • Pinched or clubbed feathers
  • Any enlargement-even fat in a bird is abnormal!!

Feathers

At some time your bird may injure a pin feather and starts bleeding profusely, the feather must be removed by the base to stop bleeding. Styptic powder (or cornstarch, flour) is useful to stop bleeding until the bird can be seen by a veterinarian. Because of these hazards, you may wish to have your birds wings trimmed periodically by your veterinarian. Trimming the wings, when preformed properly, causes no discomfort or pain and makes handling and training your bird easier.

Feet

Your birds nails may need trimming periodically. Your veterinarian can instruct you in doing this, and show you how to prevent bleeding. If you attempt this yourself, be sure to have a clotting aid such as Kwik stop, on hand to stop the bleeding. When healthy, your birds beak does not routinely need trimming. If your birds beak becomes overgrown, it could have a more serious problem , so take your bird immediately to your veterinarian if you notice this.

Leg bands are applied to the legs of birds for identification and regulatory purposes. Once the bird is sold to you the band or ring is unnecessary. In fact the band can be dangerous to your pet bird. To prevent leg injuries, band removal can be done by your veterinarian.

Birds

Emergencies

In an emergency, heat and food are the two most important considerations for temporary care of the sick bird until it can be seen by a veterinarian. An electrolyte solution such as pedialyte or Gatorade can be given to prevent dehydration. Sick birds should be kept in a quiet area and handled as infrequently as possible. Do not try to treat your bird at home without consulting an avian veterinarian. Tomorrow is frequently too late, so call your bird's veterinarian as the earliest sign of problems.

Cages

In order to avoid accidental injuries and other problems, birds should be confined in cages when their owners are not present. The location of the cage or perch in the home is also important. Some birds thrive in areas of heavy traffic, where they can be a part of the family and receive lots of attention.. Others seem to prefer more privacy and solitude. Because of gas fumes, smoke and the threat of toxic fumes emitted when cooking with Teflon, a pet bird should never be kept in the kitchen.

Your birds cage should be as large as possible. The cage must be made of non-toxic material and designed for safety and ease of cleaning. Because of this, wood or wicker cages, and cages with chipping paint are not recommended.

Inside the cage your pet bird will appreciate the availability of a retreat area for a sense of privacy such as a paper bag, or nest box. Toys need to be selected with the safety of the bird in mind. Avoid toys which are easily dismantled or contain lead weights or chains.

Tie undyed leather shoelaces into complicated knots, and then hang this toy from the top of the cage. Your bird will love untying the knots and chewing on the leather. Offer your bird balls with bells. These balls, which are usually made for cats, will allow your bird to entertain itself for hours.

Cages need to have a liner such as newspaper or paper towels, which can be replaced daily. NEVER use paper printed with colored inks. Many of these inks are toxic to birds. When cutting newspapers to line the bottom of the cage, cut several sections at once. Remove one or two layers daily to help ease cleanup. While changing the paper, monitor your pet bird's stool for abnormal droppings. In addition, cages needs to be thoroughly cleaned and sterilized weekly with a product recommended by your veterinarian. A small hand vacuum can be used for quick cleanups. Because most birds are confined to a relatively small living space, good hygiene is an important part of husbandry and most valuable in preventing diseases.

Wide food bowels rather than deep cups display food attractively and may encourage the bird to eat new items. Food and water bowels should be separate to prevent mixing of the two items. Stainless bowels are the easiest to keep clean and last the longest. Bowels should be cleaned daily to prevent problems with food spoilage.

Environment

A healthy bird can tolerate temperatures that are comfortable to its owner. Because sudden changes in temperature can be a potential threat to your bird, maintain temperatures in the environment of 65-80 F.

Although pet birds can adapt to a wide range of humidity levels, birds native to subtropical climates may benefit from increasing the humidity in their environment by a humidifier, running the shower or frequent spraying with warm water. Misting or bathing keeps birds feathers healthy and their plumage shiny. Some birds will learn to bathe themselves periodically in shallow water containers.

Full spectrum lights or taking your bird outdoors provides the benefits of sunlight to your pet bird. If your bird is placed near a window or outside, avoid overheating from sunlight by providing an adequate shaded area within the cage. To decrease stress, your bird should be on a regular light/dark cycle. It is best to provide 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark. Birds sleep best in the dark. If the room has lights on at night,

CAGE COVER should be used to allow your bird to sleep 12 hours daily.Your bird probably enjoys music as much as you do. Tune in a favorite radio station, especially when you are away from the house. Allow your bird plenty of supervised playtime outside the cage every day. However, avoid ceiling fans, hot stoves, open water, cats, and windows, all of which can injure your bird.

Dangers

Other everyday dangers to your pet bird include; Non-stick cookware which releases poisonous fumes causing respiratory distress, uncoordination, and sometimes death. Poisonous plants such as; Azalea, Diffenbachia, Jerusalem Cherry, Philodendron, Poinsettia, and Mistletoe. Insect sprays and other inhaled toxins such as; Pesticides, ammonia, bleach fumes, hairsprays, cleaning sprays, and high levels of carbon monoxide can all be toxic to your bird.

Lead, which can be ingested from certain weighted bird toys, window curtain weights, solder, stained glass, and chipped paint, can cause severe depression and disease in your bird.

Proper husbandry and care will prevent many problems and diseases in your pet bird. Your veterinarian is here to discuss your concerns and see that you get set up properly with your feathered friend. Ask questions and join a local bird club to find out more information and your bird can live a long and happy life.

Proper Feeding

The proper feeding of pet birds is the most challenging and important aspect of their care. Because IMPROPER FEEDING IS THE CHIEF CAUSE OF DISEASE AND DEATH IN PET BIRDS, either a formulated pelleted feed or a balanced diet consisting of a variety of foods is essential. Because birds require food daily and will die quickly when not eating, monitor them closely whenever trying to change their diet.

In the wild, birds eat only twice daily morning and late afternoon. Therefore, a pet bird should be fed what it will consume in 20-30 minutes twice daily. Uneaten food should be removed to prevent overeating and spoilage. Water needs to be present at all times.

Contrary to popular belief, seeds do not provide complete nutrition. Complete formulated diets, specifically developed for pet birds, are convenient and usually most nutritious for birds. These diets may be purchased from pet stores and veterinarians as pellets, nuggets, crumbles, or hand feeding premixes. Most formulated bird diets have at least two formulas: one for the normal adult bird, and one for birds with special needs such as molting, laying eggs, or raising young. Your veterinarian can recommend a reliable commercial producer of formulated diets for birds. Converting a seed -eating bird to a formulated food must be done with care because the pellets in the cage may not be recognized as food. Carefully monitor the total food consumption during a diet change. New food items can be introduced while gradually reducing the total volume of seed offered. Your veterinarian can assist you in converting your pet bird to a formulated diet.

If your bird will not convert to a formulated diet, you can provide improved nutrition to seed eating birds by adding variety. Grains such as packaged commercial feeds, cooked brown rice, oats, barley, wheat and whole grain bread, should constitute 60% of the diet. However, other foods must be added to balance the nutrients missing in seeds.

Vegetables are a valuable addition to your bird's diet and should comprise 10% of the diet. The most valuable are dark green and leafy or dark yellow. REMEMBER to WASH all vegetables very well. Suggested greens include Dandelion leaves, beets, broccoli, endive, escarole, carrots, parsley, pumpkin, winter squash, and sweet potatoes. Fresh fruits should be offered in limited quantities in order to prevent over-consumption by the bird. The diet should include less than 5% fruits. All birds have a protein need. This may be met by feeding mature legumes such as cooked beans, peas, and lentils, boiled eggs (yolk, white, and shell crumbled together), yogurt, cottage cheese, tuna or cooked chicken and meat.Chicken bones with some meat left on are relished by many birds, as are pork and beef bones. These bones are an excellent source of protein and calcium. Be SURE that the meat is well cooked. Multi-vitamins can be sprinkled lightly over the food. Of special concern are vitamins A, D3, and B Complex. Minerals are essential and should be supplied daily in the form of cuttlebones, mineral blocks, milk, oyster shell, or egg shell. Parakeets should also be supplied with a source of iodine. Grit may be necessary for pet birds but only a few small pieces every week of so. Another method of adding variety and interest is to include table food. Try different foods which are good for you. However, avoid heavily spiced foods. Begin by introducing only small crumbs of a food. Never try to starve your bird into eating a new food. Some foods forms can help provide sources of activity for the bird: berries, buds and leaves, corn on the cob, pine cones, and limited amounts of coconuts and whole nuts. Avoid foods or drinks that contain caffeine, such as chocolate or coffee, alcohol, or a high fat content, these can be toxic to birds. Some birds may be more agreeable to trying new foods if they see their owners or another bird eating the food. Therefore, caging birds together or near a converted bird will often make the conversion easier. Some owners feed their bird at the dinner table when they are eating. However, never feed your bird from your mouth because you can pass diseases between each other. Modifying your bird's diet from one based on seeds to a formula that contains all the known nutrients for avian species will produce extraordinary results. As your bird adjusts to the new healthy ingredients, you will see a definite improvement in its appearance and behavior. Owners must be very persistent and and patient with this endeavor which may take several months. However, the results will be improved health and a long life for your feathered companion.

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